Wednesday, July 8, 2020
Occupational and Environmental Pesticide Exposure and the Risk of Alzheimers Disease - Free Essay Example
This literature review discusses the possible connection between pesticide exposure and the risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). After thorough examination of peer-reviewed and literature review articles, data revealed there is an association between the risk of Alzheimers disease and pesticide exposure, primarily limited to those with a history of occupational pesticide exposure. Only brief evidence of environmental pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimers disease was found. While each article touched on the aforementioned topic, the literature also emphasized the importance for supplementary research on specific pesticide classes, as results indicated organophosphates and organochlorines pose the most significant risk in developing Alzheimers disease. The literature presented distinctly called to action further research on this connection primarily in female populations, as the link between pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimers disease in males is more apparent. Further study on this topic may include new research examining pesticide usage in food products, as eating pesticide-altered foods is a mechanism of everyday pesticide exposure in both genders, not yet explored in literature. If this research is conducted, there is potential for change in overall pesticide usage, policies on pesticides, and possible reduction in cases of Alzheimers disease. Keywords: pesticides, pesticide exposure, occupational, environmental, Alzheimers disease, risk factors, neurological disorders Pesticide Exposure and the Risk of Alzheimers Disease There is long-standing evidence that pesticides can be responsible for certain acute and chronic health effects. Although there are thousands of studies on pesticides and their link to conditions such as cancers, reproductive health, and Parkinsons disease, data is lacking in regards to pesticide exposure and their relationship to the risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). Current findings suggest pesticide exposure may cause the loss of neuron signaling, resulting in cognitive decline, impaired memory/attention, and motor function, all of which are common neurobehavioral symptoms of AD (Baldi et al., 2003, Parrin, Requena, Hernandez, Alarcin, 2011). Databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were used to find peer-reviewed articles that applied to this topic between the years 2001 and 2014. Mesh headings included risk of AD, risk factors for AD, occupational pesticide exposure, and environmental pesticide exposure. The majority of literature that surfaced pertaining to pestici de exposure and its association with increased risk of AD consisted of cohort, case-control, and ecological studies, with a focus on populations where occupational or environmental mechanisms were the origins of exposure. This paper discusses the current evidence on the association between daily occupational and environmental pesticide exposure and the risk of developing AD by examining five peer-reviewed articles and one literature review. The presented literature highlights how risk of AD may differ between occupational and environmental pesticide exposures, specific types of pesticides and possible elevated risks of AD, as well as explanations representing the lack of data on pesticide exposure and risk of AD in female populations. Literature Review Occupational and Environmental Pesticide Exposures The factors distinguishing occupational pesticide exposure from environmental pesticide exposure include the intentional, direct usage of pesticides by a person during their daily occupation, typically in farming and agricultural industries (Quissell, 2018). Conversely, environmental pesticide exposure may include the unintentional contamination of soil, water, air, and vegetation from pesticides (Quissell, 2018). For the purposes of this review, the latter is considered independent from occupational pesticide exposure. A prospective cohort study published in The American Journal of Epidemiology reported a significant association between AD and occupational pesticide exposure, explaining that the French elderly, aged 65 and older, who previously worked in vineyards or agricultural settings had over two times the risk of developing AD due to their occupation (Baldi et al., 2003). It is also important to emphasize this positive association still occurred after adjusting for smoking and education levels (2003). By the last follow-up session, researchers found a cumulative exposure for a total of 228 subjects, twenty-six of whom presented with AD, translating to 30.7 cases per 1,000 person-years (Baldi et al., 2003). This study suggests that not only may short-term cognitive impairments occur in occupationally exposed individuals, but AD development is also a possible and more severe result of occupational pesticide exposure, even after long-term work cessation (Baldi et al., 2003). A more recent case-control study published in The American Academy of Neurology explained similar conclusions on occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of AD. After assessment of self-reported exposure data and cognitive statuses in residents of Cache County, Utah, researchers concluded that of the 572 pesticide-exposed individuals, over 40% of those exposed reported farming as their primary occupation (Hayden et al., 2010). More importantly, 344 of the pesticide-exposed individuals were all diagnosed with AD (2010). These results provide evidence that there is a correlation between occupational pesticide exposure and development of AD. However, this correlation also poses the argument that pesticide exposure outside of occupational settings and risk of AD is also possible, as not all of the 344 pesticide-exposed individuals reported exposure from only occupational history. This latter statement is evidence suggesting that in general, pesticides could be an overall risk factor in developing AD. Although data seems consistent in occupational pesticide exposure and risk of AD, the two studies that evaluated the association between environmental pesticide exposure and risk of AD differed immensely. In a case-control study developed in the Saguenay-Lac region of Quebec, Canada, researchers aimed to find an association between environmental pesticide exposure and risk of AD, basing their conclusions on assessment of pesticide, herbicide, and insecticide spraying activity in residential areas (Gauthier et al., 2001). After controlling for genetic, occupational, and sociodemographic factors, the results failed to show a connection between significant risk of AD and exposure to any and all pesticides (2001). In a literature review published in Toxicology, authors consider the outcome of Gauthier et al. (2001) invalid, as the central measure of environmental exposure was indirectly assessed based on residence and the Agriculture Statistics of Canada for pesticide-spraying activity i n only a few areas (Zaganas et al., 2013, p.6). Conversely, an ecological study conducted in Andalusia, Spain, provides some evidence that the risk of AD is in fact greater in populations living near farm and agricultural lands where there is high pesticide usage (Parrin, Requena, Hernndez, Alarin, 2011). Parin, Requena, Hernndez, Alarcn (2011) explain how pesticide residues can travel into surrounding water, soil, and even air from nearby agricultural land and farms, becoming a harmful substance to those in proximity (p.380). This concept is one mechanism of environmental pesticide exposure, and a potential reason why populations living in areas of high pesticide usage have a greater risk of AD (Parr?n, Requena, Hernandez, Alarcin, 2011). This data is particularly significant for the association between environmental pesticide exposure and risk of AD because researchers controlled for all occupations relating to agriculture. Therefore, data only represented participants exposed to pesticides based on proximity to agricultural practices and farmlands, compared to those who lived closer to urban settings. In other words, results propose that there is an association between environmental pesticide exposure and higher risk of AD, independent from occupational exposure. Although Gauthier et al. (2001) did not provide evidence of an association between environmental pesticide exposure and risk of AD, it is important to note that this study is an example of the clear-cut gap in current literature on environmental pesticide exposure and the risk of AD itself. Further research strictly on environmental pesticide exposure and the risk of ADis crucial to provide a consensus in data. This research should answer if environmental pesticide exposure includes more categories in addition to contamination of soil, water, air, and household pesticides. Research should call into question if duration of environmental pesticide exposure has an effect on the risk of AD, if certain classifications of pesticides have a higher risk than others in comparison to widely used occupational pesticides, as well as possible ways to eradicate environmental pesticide exposures. Types of Pesticides and Elevated Risk of AD Part of the difficulty in determining if pesticide exposures are truly associated with risk of AD is the lack of science-based evidence regarding the harmful effects of specific pesticide classes. Media, news outlets, and even documentaries about the agricultural industry have instilled the idea that the four classes of pesticides are not created equal, and some are far worse than others. According to science-based literature, there is some truth to this statement, as research suggests two specific pesticides, organophosphates and organochlorines, statistically show a correlation in the risk of developing AD (Hayden et al., 2010, Richardson et al., 2014). Before its official ban in 1972, the organochlorine DDT, was one of the most widely used pesticides in U.S. agriculture (Richardson et al., 2014). The knowledge of DDT persistence in the environment and its ability to accumulate in tissues over a long period of time led researchers at The Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Rutger s University to examine serum levels of patients with AD who previously had an occupational history of DDT exposure (Richardson et al., 2014). Results indicated that serum levels of DDT were significantly elevated in 80% of their patients with AD, which suggests organochlorines may have a greater effect in the risk of developing AD over other classes of pesticides (2014). In the Cache County case-control study, questions during assessment of exposure addressed four specific types of pesticides including organophosphates, carbamates, organochlorines (DDT), and methyl bromides (Hayden et al., 2010). Results identified that of the 572 individuals who reported pesticide exposure, 316 reported exposure to organophosphates, 256 to organochlorines, 28 to methyl bromides, and 25 to carbamates (2010). Aside from organophosphates and organochlorines being the two pesticides participants were numerically most exposed to, data revealed that participants who were exposed to organophosphates had the highest risk of AD (53% higher), with organochlorines posing only slightly less risk (Hayden et al., 2010, p.1528). Unlike most of the data that grouped all pesticide classes together, both Richardson et al. (2014) and Hayden et al. (2010) called attention to which types of pesticides may significantly increase the risk of AD. It is important to draw the connection between these two studies, for their findings promoted the hypothesis that toxicity levels in pesticides are variable based on classification. Although these two studies point to clear evidence suggesting exposure to organophosphates and organochlorines pose greater risks in developing AD, further research is necessary to determine levels of toxicity across all classes of pesticides and possible synergistic effects. Pesticide Exposure and AD in Males versus Females Across the literature, data suggests most pesticide exposure occurs in male-dominated occupational settings, making the association between pesticide exposure and the risk of AD extremely prevalent among males (Hayden et al., 2010). Despite female participant inclusion at the origin of all studies, researchers clearly emphasized there was no significant association of occupational pesticide exposure and risk of AD in females, (Baldi et al., 2003, p.413-14). Furthermore, it was also determined that males living in areas with high pesticide usage showed nearly double the risk of presenting with AD in comparison to females (Parr?n, Requena, Hernndez, Alarc?n, 2011). This trend reveals that males seem to have a higher risk in developing AD through both occupational and environmental pesticide exposures. The largest gap across literature is relevant data on female pesticide exposure and the risk of AD. This is ironic considering AD in general disproportionately affects older female populations (Zaganas et al., 2013). In Zaganas et als. (2013) literature review, researchers emphasized that of the fourteen studies assessed, the majority of research failed to include reasoning as to why there may be a difference in male versus female pesticide exposure and risk of AD (Zaganas et al., 2013). Researchers attribute some lack of data to the sheer fact that research on AD development itself is still underway, whereas data on other neurological diseases, such as Parkinsons, are more readily available and extensive (Zaganas et al., 2013). Conclusions and Future Study Through close examination of the literature, concrete evidence displayed the risk of AD increased for those with a history of occupational pesticide exposure. However, the conclusions in studies that examined environmental pesticide exposure and the risk of AD were far less clear. Some literature emphasized the danger in specific pesticides such asorganophosphates and organochlorines, but most studies failed to draw attention to which pesticides may have caused a more severe connection in the risk of developing AD. Moreover, it was apparent that not only is overall data on this topic still minimal, but data on female pesticide exposure and risk of AD is almost non-existent. Baldi et al. (2003) and Gauthier et al. (2001) failed to communicate speculations as to why there was no significant association in female populations, while Richardson et al. (2014) disregarded gender, and classified his participants only by occupational exposure. Further research on the link between pesticide ex posure and risk of AD must include a way of measuring exposure that is generalizable across a majority of populations. Initiative in examining pesticide-altered foods, provided by agricultural and food industries, is one way to achieve new data solely on environmental pesticide exposure, specific pesticide toxicity classifications, and statistical differences in both genders, as eating pesticide-altered foods is a mechanism of daily pesticide exposure not yet explored in literature. References Baldi, I., Lebailly, P., Mohammed-Brahim, B., Letenneur, L., Dartigues, J. F., Brochard, P. (2003). Neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to pesticides in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(5), 409Ã¢â¬Å"414. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf216 Gauthier, E., Fortier, I., Courchesne, F., Pepin, P., Mortimer, J., Gauvreau, D. (2001). Environmental pesticide exposure as a risk factor for Alzheimers disease: A case-control study. Environmental Research, 86(1), 37Ã¢â¬Å"45. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2001.4254 Hayden, K. M., Norton, M. C., Darcey, D., stbye, T., Zandi, P. P., Breitner, J. C. S., Welsh-Bohmer, K. A. (2010). Occupational exposure to pesticides increases the risk of incident AD: The Cache County Study. Neurology, 74(19), 1524Ã¢â¬Å"1530. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dd4423 Parrin, T., Requena, M., Hernandez, A. F., Alarcin, R. (2011). Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 256(3), 379Ã¢â¬Å"385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.05.006 Quissell, K. (2018, March 15). Pesticides. [PowerPoint slides]. Retreived from https://learn.bu.edu/webapps/portal/execute/tabs/tabAction?tab_tab_group_id=_10_1 Richardson, J. R., Roy, A., Shalat, S. L., Von Stein, R. T., Hossain, M. M., Buckley, B., German, D. C. (2014). Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurology, 71(3), 284Ã¢â¬Å"290. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.6030 Zaganas, I., Kapetanaki, S., Mastorodemos, V., Kanavouras, K., Colosio, C., Wilks, M. F., Tsatsakis, A. M. (2013). Linking pesticide exposure and dementia: What is the evidence? Toxicology, 307(May), 3Ã¢â¬Å"11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2013.02.002
Tuesday, June 30, 2020
Which type of Contract, Bilateral or Unilateral, is More Common in Business? (Essay Sample) Content: ContractsNameStudents NumberCourse TitleUnit NumberInstitutionContractsQuestion 1)Which type of contract, bilateral or unilateral, is more common in business? Why? Under what circumstance would someone prefer one or the other? What are the advantages of each type for the offeror? For the offeree?Business transactions are very common when running a business. No matter the type of a business one is running, having and understanding the business contracts is very imperative. The business contracts assist the businesses in solving disputes in case they arise. According to Emanuel (2006), a contract is an agreement between two people. The contract creates an obligation for the parties to do particular things. The bilateral contract is the most basic contract between two people or a group. Some of the examples of the bilateral contracts include ordering food in a restaurant and receiving treatment from a doctor among others. In the business environment, bilateral contract s are mostly used.According to Emanuel (2006), the unilateral contract is a type of contract that involves an action taken by one person or a group of people. According to the business contract law, the unilateral contract only allows one person to make a promise. A good example of a unilateral contract is the reward contract. If a person misplaces his/her item, they may enter into a unilateral contract and promise a certain amount of money. In this case, there is no specific person that is responsible for finding the item. If a person finds the lost item and brings it to the offeror, the offeror has an obligation to pay the offeree. The offeree may take the offeror to court if he/she refuses to deliver the promise. The main difference between the two contracts is that in the unilateral contract, one party offers a contract while the other one agree and accepts by performing. On the other hand, the bilateral contract requires the two parties to act and give the promises to each o ther (Emanuel, 2006).In the business world, the bilateral contracts are mostly used. In the bilateral contract, the parties are obliged to comply with the terms involved. According to the study by Emanuel (2006), most of the business and the personal contract fall under the bilateral contract. The bilateral contract becomes legal binding when the two parties exchange the promises. From the past, the courts have differentiated the two contracts by examining if the two parties gave a consideration (Emanuel, 2006).There are various advantages of the unilateral contract to the offeror is that he can get many people to participate. For example, if the offeror has lost an item, by offering the unilateral contract, he/she may find the item faster. Additional...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The purpose of punishment is to keep an incident from reoccurring. While punishment doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep it from happening again, it helps. Execution and the death penalty have been used in most societies since the beginning of history. Penalties back then included boiling to death, flaying, slow slicing, crucification, impalement, crushing, stoning, decapitation, etc. The death penalty was used for reasons today that would go under cruel and unusual punishment. Today in the United States, execution is used mainly for murder, espionage, and treason. In some states in the US, death by firing squad is still used. (Ã¢â¬Å"Criminal Justice: Capital Punishment FocusÃ¢â¬ ). 35 states, the U.S military, and the U.S government today use lethal injection as the main method of execution. (Ã¢â¬Å"Methods of ExecutionÃ¢â¬ ) I believe that the death penalty is not the right way to punish people who have been convicted of murder. Topics that show that capital punishment is wrong are: people see the death penalty as eye for an eye. This means that weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to do onto you what you did to others and to get revenge. Other topics are how the system fails and its flaws, also the cost of the death penalty. The death penalty is wrong because in our society, looking at things eye for an eye will never solve anything. People who look at things eye for an eye are usually violent people. We want people not from the United State to know revenge will always make matters worse. Killing someone for killing someone sendsShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Is A Punishment For A Crime926 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat has the death penalty as part of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s sentencing options. Basically, the death penalty is a punishment for a crime, typically murder, where the individual is put to death by some approved execution method (e.g. lethal injection). The death penalty is mentioned in North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution. Specifically, Article XI, section 2 of North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution states that the General Assembly has the power to implement the death penalty as a punishment for specific crimes (N.C. ConstRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is The Punishment Of A Capital Crime2275 Words Ã | Ã 10 PagesThe death penalty is the punishment of implementation administered to someone guilty of a capital crime. Death penalty is also referred to as capital punishment that also takes care of the implementation of the penalty once found guilty by the relevant authorities. The penalty laws, however, date as far as the 18th century during the reign of King Hammurabi of Babylon. This fact according to history codified the penalty for 25 different crimes (Murphy and Russell). It was also part of the 14 centuryRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is The Punishment For A Wide Range Of Crimes1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Throughout history Capital Punishment or Ã¢â¬Å"the Death PenaltyÃ¢â¬ was the punishment for a wide range of crimes. Capital Punishment was used by almost all societies to both punish crime and suppress political dissent. For example, execution was widely employed as a means of oppressing political dissent by fascist or communist governments. Also during the Eig hteenth century, Britain executed a person for 222 different crimes including stealing an animal or cutting down a tree. (JasperRead MoreEssay on Death Penalty: Capital Punishment and Violent Crime1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCapital Punishment and Violent Crime Hypothesis Most Americans are pro-death penalty, even though they dont really believe that it is an effective deterrent to violent crime. Those who are pro-death penalty will remain so, even if faced with the best arguments of anti-death penalty activists and told to assume the arguments were absolutely true. Violent crime Violent crime is a major problem in the United States. According to the ACLU, the violent crime rate rose sixty-one percentRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is The Practice Of Executing People As Punishment For A Specific Crime Essay1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages2D 7A:Capital punishment is the practice of executing people as punishment for a specific crime. Throughout history, people have been put to death for serious criminals. Methods of execution have included such practices as injection, shooting and other forms. 2C According to Amnesty International (2007), ninety eight countries have abolished capital punishment. This proportion accounts for most of countires in the world. The death penalty is the most controversial penal practice in the modern worldRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legalized1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Death Penalty: Should it be Sentenced to Death? For many years, a controversial issue has been whether the death penalty should remain legal in the United States. Despite the fact that is is legal in only 31 states, some Americans argue that the death penalty needs to be completely abolished. Their view is that is is inhumane and constitutionally unjustified. On the other hand many believe it is a source of deterrence and is the only just punishment for some crimes. When it comes down to itRead MoreWhy the Death Penalty is Ineffective1552 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhy the Death Penalty is Ineffective The society constantly tries to reason with an effective way to respond to violence. Differences in opinion on the use of death as punishment arise from differences in religious, ethical, cultural, and morale perspectives. The role of death as a punishment for an offence has not been solved today, and remains a dilemma for the citizenrys political, legal, social, and religious thought. This is because an answer to the question is the death penalty effectiveRead MoreCapital Punishment Is Not A Better Than Life Imprisonment1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCapital punishment is the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime. Although capital punishment is wrong and is the killing of a human being, capital punishment is legal in thirty-two of the fifty states in the United States, meaning that the other eighteen states outlaw it as a punishment for crime. States that capital punishment is legal in all have different guidelines for what is punishable by death, but mostly murder or other capital offenses are what is punished. CapitalRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is Justified1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPeriod 2 Objective paper on the death penalty Capital punishment is legally authorized killing as punishment for a crime. The death penalty questions the morality of killing a person as justification for their crime. It also brings to question whether the death penalty actually serves as a deterrent for crime, and that some of the people executed are found innocent afterwards. The debates over the constitutionality of the death penalty and whether capital punishment should be used for retributionRead MoreEssay about The Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The death penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been implemented by many states, and is normally used for atrocious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishment depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith
Title Welfare Fraud: Betting Against the Odds Introduction The issue that I have decided to address is welfare abuse. I propose that due to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of foresight, welfare recipients have been cashing EBT benefits at ATM machines in California casinoÃ¢â¬â¢s. Research question: Can something be done to ensure that welfare benefits will be used as intended by the recipients? Readers: Mainly Californian tax payers, but in a broader sense it could be anyone who is concerned about the welfare system, including recipients. This topic addresses the needs of the taxpayers to be informed about what is happening to their tax dollars going into the TANF program. At this time I am focusing on California, but I may includeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Plan to Collect Information I will continue to use sources such as; newspaper articles, editorials, commentaries, magazine articles, books from the LBCC and Albany public libraries, databases, link to the Library of Congress, and a multitude of online resources. The article that alerted me to this issue made me think about the flaws in our welfare system. I also began to reflect upon the flawed character of the welfare recipients involved. I intend to consult with reference librarians at both libraries and perhaps a welfare representative if possible. I am mailing a questionnaire to Governor SchwarzeneggerÃ¢â¬â¢s spokesman Aaron McLear. I do not expect a response, but if he did reply it would add credibility to my claim. I have also schedule an interview with a former California welfare recipient. I will ask her about her personal experience with TANF and the process of applying for benefits. I will also question what regulations were explained (written or oral) to her and what her understanding is o f the agreement she signed. She thinks that she still has a copy of that paperwork and is willing to share that with me for reference. I will be blacking out any personal information for her protection. I have tentatively scheduled that interview for this Sunday at 1pm. I didShow MoreRelatedCollege Student Gambling: Examining the Effects of Gaming Education Within a College Curriculum15937 Words Ã |Ã 64 Pagescalculate gambling odds, and gambling behaviors were examined before and after exposure to gaming education. Seventy five percent of the students surveyed as the baseline group reported gambling within the past 12 months, with a minority gambling weekly or more, or gambling large amounts of money. At the semester end, follow-up findings showed that the students who received the gaming education intervention demonstrated significant improvement in their ability to calculate gambling odds and resist commonRead MoreGambling a Bad Bet5057 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagescity of Rome. The Bible records that Roman soldiers gambled for the garments of Christ (Matthew 27:35), an action predicted in the Old Testament (Psalm 22:18). In the latter eighteenth century, lottery proceeds helped to fortify Colonial America against the British. But if the history of its use is long, so is that of its misuse. Loaded dice were found in the ruins of ancient Pompeii. Corruption, it seems, is the inevitable bedfellow of gambling. Corruption notwithstanding, various polls and studiesRead MorePro and Con of Liberalized Gambling in Texas7402 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesare, however, many fiscal arguments against gambling as well. Although gambling proponents always promise large tax revenues from gambling, a statewide survey shows that such promises are almost never fulfilled. For example, gambling proponents are currently claiming that introducing gambling to Texas can bring in $2 billion in tax revenue to the state. However, the entire State of Nevada only receives $1 billion in revenue each year. Another argument against gambling is the reduced power of theRead MoreThe Difference and Commonalities Between the Labor Law of Mainland China and Hong Kong11237 Words Ã |Ã 45 Pages |2. 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Employers have a strict duty to ensure the safety, health and welfare of employees and others present at the workplace. Employers and individuals face monetary fines and potential jail terms for individuals. Workers compensation laws govern at the State level. Anti-discrimination laws at both State and Federal levelRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesThe Basic Emotions 100 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 100 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Function of Emotions 102 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sources of Emotions and Moods 103 Emotional Labor 108 Affective Events Theory 110 Emotional Intelligence 112 The Case f or EI 113 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Case Against EI 114 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emotion Regulation 115 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 115 Selection 116 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decision Making 116 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Creativity 116 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motivation 117 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leadership 117 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Negotiation 117 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer Service 118 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Job Attitudes 119 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Deviant Workplace BehaviorsRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesthe ratings you received to those received by other students in the class. (3) Compare the ratings you received to a norm group of approximately 5,000 business 42 INTRODUCTION school students (see the information below). (4) Compare your score against the maximum possible (510). For the survey as a whole, if you scored 394.35 422 or above 395Ã¢â¬â421 369Ã¢â¬â394 368 or below = = = = = mean you are in the top quartile. you are in the second quartile. you are in the third quartile. you are in the bottom
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Tragedy of the Commons American Earth: Environmental Writing Since Thoreau is a diverse yet interconnected collection of essays by renowned environmentalist authors who have been influential in literature, religion, science, and politics. Each piece has a specific purpose and role that it plays in conveying ideas and themes. Many authors share their personal opinions on issues such as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s declining forests, the extinction of species, as well their intimate experiences with nature. However, the most influential essay in this book is Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the CommonsÃ¢â¬ by Garrett Hardin (438). A multitude of pieces in this book tie into the tragedy of the commons and support its ideas in one way or another. In his essay Hardin discusses how the rapid decline of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s common places, such as natural animal pastures, are the result of rapid, uncontrolled human population growth. Hardin suggests that environmental problems such as deforestation, crowding out of native species, loss of resources, pollution, poor job economy, etc., are the result of the loss of common spaces. He indicated that common spaces used to be plentiful enough for every person to have an abundant share, but that was when the human population was smaller than the current population of 7 billion people. HardinÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful essay proposes many solutions and methods for solving the ever increasing tragedy of the commons. Ã¢â¬Å"Ruin is the destination towards which all men rush, each pursuing hisShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of The Commons1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Tragedy of the Commons American Earth: Environmental Writing Since Thoreau is a diverse yet interconnected collection of essays by renowned environmentalist authors who have been influential in literature, religion, science, and politics. Each piece has a specific purpose and role that it plays in conveying ideas and themes. Many authors share their personal opinions on issues such as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s declining forests, the extinction of species, such as birds in Gene Stratton-PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LastRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Commons2562 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesthat are important to understanding human-environment relations, the most significant would have to be the tragedy of the commons. Before explaining why that may be, understanding what the tragedy of the commons is will help give a better understanding to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ significance. In other words, the main reason for the tragedy of the commons is the fact that humans are selfish when it comes to common goods, which are places that are op en for everyone to use. People tend to act rationally in their own selfRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Commons1971 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFew decades ago, clean water was Ã¢â¬Å"commonsÃ¢â¬ (Hardin, 1968) to us. It was a natural resource shared by everyone and not owned by anyone. This Ã¢â¬Å"commonsÃ¢â¬ was taken for granted to the extent that people exploit clean water without considering its finiteness. Resorts and factories dumped wastewater and ruined nearby rivers and oceans. People carelessly littered garbage and substituted the dirty water with diminishing clean water. They definitely benefited in terms of financial cost and comfort from theirRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Commons930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWithin the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the Commons,Ã¢â¬ ecologist Garrett Hardin asserts that eventually all resources used in common will encounter overexploitation or degradation as these difficult to enclose systems incentivize individuals to pursue their own self-int erest while simultaneously behaving contrary to the common good of all users (Anukwonke, 2015, p. 3). Affirming that the absence of both state regulation as well as privatization inescapably encourages individuals to act selfishly so asRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Commons2099 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand the environment located in this area. Groundwater depletion in this region developed partly because of a problem represented by the idea of the tragedy of the commons, which is expounded upon by Thomas Dietz, Elinor Ostrom, and Paul Stern in Ã¢â¬Å"The Struggle to Govern the CommonsÃ¢â¬ (Dietz, Ostrom, Stern, 2003). The concept of the tragedy of commons evolves from the belief that individuals will undoubtedly act in their own self-interest when a shared resource, such as water or air, is at stake asRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Commons1871 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe paper introduces the general idea of the Tragedy of the Commons. This idea is basically that there are many cooperative situations, including many that crucially involve social and political issues, in which some or all of those cooperating have an incentive to abuse the explicit or tacit agreement at the foundation of the cooperation. This idea has proven fruitful in understanding many sorts of problems, though its application to specific problems varies in terms of how literally or directlyRead MoreTphady Of The Commons : The Tragedy Of The Commons1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is easy to imagine when Hardin (1968) wrote the Tragedy of the Commons; he anticipated things would get progressively worse over time, particularly if people did not respect the earth (Hardin, 1968). Although he did not mention any particular common, Hardin (1968) envisioned the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources dwindling, as a result of peoples mishandling of them. Hardin (1968) explained that Ã¢â¬Å"tragedyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the Commons,Ã¢â¬ is the cruel way things work. It may have seemed as though things inRead MoreTragedy of the Commons Essays886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGarrett HardinÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the CommonsÃ¢â¬ illustrates the continuing problem of the commons. The article clearly illustrates the effects of the exponentially increasing population such as pollution and food. Possible solutions to the problems are stated in the article, but any and all solution will be difficult to accomplish and may not be effective because of manÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of freedom and selfishness. The commons is an area of land that belongs to the public as opposed to being owned byRead MoreTragedy Of The Commons Summary931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Tragedy of the CommonsÃ¢â¬ What is Garrett HardinÃ¢â¬â¢s central idea in this article? The central idea of Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragedy of the CommonsÃ¢â¬ is that, to ensure an acceptable, general quality of life, the human race must limit its population growth, ultimately through means of coercion. To reach this conclusion, Hardin works through multiple assumptions and their various conclusions. First is that we live in a world of finite resources. No amount of technical, technological, or agricultural innovation willRead MoreTragedy and the Common Man1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,Ã¢â¬ Miller mentions tragedy as manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to gain his Ã¢â¬Å"rightfulÃ¢â¬ position in his society, and whoever that character may beÃ¢â¬âking or common manÃ¢â¬âthat character is eventually brought down by his or her tragic flaws and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what makes that character a tragic hero. In the past, there have been many tragic heroes which can relate to Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,Ã¢â¬ in
In the book Ã¢â¬Å"Money can buy HappinessÃ¢â¬ tells about spending money on important and substantial things that bring us long lasting happiness. It provide some helpful information and tips which can be applied in our daily living. If you want to find out how to put together the most of your money in order to get a good and happy life (good return on investment). This book also creates awareness of how we spend our money, investments and savings wisely. For those who wants to analyze whether their spending habits align with their values, this book can be an eye opener for them. MP Dunleavey, is the author of Money Can Buy Happiness. She is an award-winning personal finance author, editor, consultant, specializing in women and money. She is also a former columnist for The New York Times, and MSN Money. Dunleavey points out some good ideas about financial key terms to validate how spending money when makes you happy, makes a lot of sense. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a usual advice about retirement and paying down debt but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s always a given. The best parts of this book are the parts that focus on happiness and evaluating if you are using money for its intended purpose. Happiness can be describe in many ways. For some they would say spending time with their loved ones, having a good relationship, having a good job, being able to live in luxury, being able to buy all their needs, having a good meal, being healthy, having enough money being free from debts and stress. These are only some of the reasonsShow MoreRelatedCan Money Buy Happiness?1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCan Money buy Happiness? Money is peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s number one priority. It enables them to purchase food, clothing, and shelter. Money can buy anything with a price on it, but can it buy happiness? Happiness is not an item you can buy, it is something you can feel. Money cannot bring you happiness, only satisfaction. We learn growing up not everything in this world is free. Money can only give you a short term of happiness. When you buy everything you want, you do not have anything to look forwardRead MoreMoney Can t Buy Happiness1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA 2010 study conducted by Princeton UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Center For Health and Well-Being threatens to discredit the age-old adage that Ã¢â¬Å"money canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy happinessÃ¢â¬ because, as it turns out, money can buy happiness...at least to an extent. The study isolated a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"happiness benchmarkÃ¢â¬ for annual income, at or above which research subjects reported higher levels of overall life satisfaction. A possible ramification of the study is that because certain groups of people have more difficulty finding andRead MoreAnalysis Of Money In The Great Gatsby1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHappiness of Money (Literary analysis on The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald) Gold diggers are commonly known as women that only go after a guy because of the money that he has. The said women doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to love the man just to have the money is enough to keep her around on him. Often times there is a man that really does like this lady, but because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have money he never gets with her. What if this man without the money decide he would do anything to get money to impress theRead MoreHappiness And Happiness : Three Causes Of Happiness802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvery Person has a different understanding of happiness. Happiness is defined as an emotion in which one experiences feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to bliss and intense joy. Happiness may be defined in such a way it can be interpreted in many different ways by different people. There are many happiness triggers in life, and each person has a set of triggers that make them feel happy. Based on the readings Ã¢â¬Å"The Sources of HappinessÃ¢â¬ by The Dalai Lama and Howard Cutler, Ã¢â¬Å"If We areRead MoreCan Money Buy Happiness?891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Can money buy happiness?Ã¢â¬ has been a cliche question for centuries, and there have been numerous studies and debates on this topic. Yet, no one seems to have a definite answer. In the video Money and Happiness, Michael Norton states explicitly that money does bring people happiness if you spent it on other people rather than on yourself. Although his interesting and novel answer is contrary to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s natural instinct, it makes me reflect on my past experience of spending on others, and helps meRead MoreThe Article Love People, Not Pleasure By Arthur C. Brooks880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessuffering and bring happiness The Article Ã¢â¬Å"Love People, Not Pleasure,Ã¢â¬ written by Arthur C. Brooks argues that many people assume the things we are attracted to will relieve suffering and bring happiness. In the article Brooks questions what unhappiness is, Brooks states that Happiness and unhappiness are related and they are not actually opposites. In the article Brooks mentions people assume that fame, money, material things and pleasure will relieve suffering and bring happiness. Brooks offers manyRead MoreQ2. If you had $2.5 million would you save a life of a Jew or buy a Lamborghini? Q3. Can Money600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Q2. If you had $2.5 million would you save a life of a Jew or buy a Lamborghini? Q3. Can Money Buy you Happiness? Q4. Can Money buy you Justice? Q5. Can money buy you care? Q6. If you found a wallet would you return it? Q7. If you need money anxiously than you would do the same thing?(Returning the wallet) Q8. Would you justify this if one person is needy so that he can do unethical practice? Q9. Does society insist the people to go unethical? Q10. Does government playingRead MoreThe Decay of American Dream in The Great Gatsby1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe upper class society, the luxuries that he has blind him from realizing that money cannot buy him fortune, nor love. Therefore, F. Scott Fitzgerald describes how the American Dream can become corrupted if the dreamerÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on obtaining fame, power and wealth through materialism. Jay GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is a Ã¢â¬Å"is a naÃ ¯ve dream based on the fallacious assumption that material possessions are synonymous with happiness, harmony, and beautyÃ¢â¬ (Fahey 70). He is the title character and protagonist ofRead MoreHappiness And Happiness : The Myth Of Happiness1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen you hear the word happiness, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Do you think of material possessions like designer clothes and accessories, the newest iPhone with the highest possible storage capacity, or a shiny red supercar? Do you think the amount of money you have or your current financial status has an effect on how happy you are? Plenty of college students, myself included, would associate happiness with possessing items like these or just having a lot of money in general. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Correlation Between Income And Happiness1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnumber of publications have presented their analysis on the impact of income on happin ess. The results provided in these papers acknowledged that there is a connection between the two. Yet, other factors considered in their studies also say otherwise. Likewise, I wanted to see what these studies have concluded for myself and do my own analysis on the issue. Using data from the 2010-2014 World Values Survey (Wave 6), along with a cross tabulation analysis and Chi-Square Test, I tested the hypothesis
Sales and Inventory Management Managing your sales transactions and monitoring stock inventory movement has never been easier thanks to Prime Softwares Sales and Inventory Management Suite. Real time inventory updates per sales transaction enables you to have an accurate and audit friendly inventory count. Track item transaction history and validate them with sales invoices and stock receipts. Monitor purchases from suppliers and inventory issuances, adjustments and transfers. Generate comprehensive sales and inventory reports. Integrate with Prime Financial Management for automatic bookkeeping of sales and inventory transactions. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales Order and Sales Invoicing modules Ã¢â¬ ¢Backorder processing Ã¢â¬ ¢Comprehensive Query on demand overviews of sales orders,back orders and invoices Ã¢â¬ ¢Comprehensive Query on demand sales reports Ã¢â¬ ¢Standard or Individually serialized inventory items Ã¢â¬ ¢Item grouping with Financial and Sales Accounting links(Integrated with Financials) Ã¢â¬ ¢Multi-warehouse inventory locations Ã¢â¬ ¢Purchase Order Modules Ã¢â¬ ¢Stock Inventory Receipt Modules Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct Purchase Stock transactions adjustments, issues, transfers Ã¢â¬ ¢Stock transaction accounting links (Integrated with Financials) Ã¢â¬ ¢Journalization links to Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payableand General Ledger Accounts (Integrated with Financials) Ã¢â¬ ¢Stock transaction cards with comprehensive Query on demand Ã¢â¬ ¢transaction overviews Ã¢â¬ ¢Inventory costing for Standard, Average or FI FO costing methods Ã¢â¬ ¢And other client defined Sales and Inventory Procedures. We will write a custom essay sample on Sales and Inventory Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If you are still managing your inventory and sales data manually, you are being left behind.And if you think that computerizing your sales and inventory system is difficult, then think again. Quantum Sales and Inventory Management System (SIMS) integrates your purchases, sales, inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable in one easy to use program. SIMS does not have to replace or change the way you currently operate your business, rather it is designed to enhance and complement it. With SIMS, all your vital business information is now available at a click of the mouse. Key Features Ã¢â¬ ¢Maintain a database of your suppliers and customers Handle hundreds to thousands of products for sale Ã¢â¬ ¢Allow several users to use the system with varying access level Ã¢â¬ ¢Track purchase history by supplier and by product Ã¢â¬ ¢Track key customer spending habits Ã¢â¬ ¢Easily track items that need to be re-ordered Ã¢â¬ ¢Track your receivables and payables Benefits Ã¢â¬ ¢Improved profitability Ã¢â¬ ¢Better business forecasting Ã¢â¬ ¢Improve inventory control Ã¢â¬ ¢Stronger customer relationship Ã¢â¬ ¢Eliminate or reduce supply gaps (out of stock, overstock) Ã¢â¬ ¢Lower inventory to sales ratio Ã¢â¬ ¢Reduced bad stock return Ã¢â¬ ¢Reduced customer receivables Easy to use, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be up and running in only 15 minutes Manage payments from customer and payments to supplier. Monitor accounts payables and receivables. System Features: Product Management ? Create and manage products/items. Set categories, packages and sub packages or bundled pac kages. Set retail price and wholesale price for customers and regular customers. Supplier Management ? Add, update or delete suppliers. Create list of suppliers and monitor who is active. Your list of suppliers will also display your accounts payable. Customer Management ? Create, update or delete customers.For regular customers, set a wholesale price. Monitor customers and your accounts receivables. User and Level Assignment ? Create, update or delete user and assign them with their level. Levels give them the rights to access modules from the software. Purchase Orders ? Make purchase orders to your supplier in case stocks are in critical level. P. O. are recorded and your payment history for later tracing. Sales Invoice ? Create sales invoice for regular and new customers. History of all invoices and its specific items are kept for monitoring for safety and warranty.Stock Transfer ? Prepare stocks for branch transfer or item returns to supplier for warranty issues. Transferred stocks are deducted to the inventory automatically. Stock Receiving ? Record stocks you received from suppliers (ordered stocks). Items are automatically added to the inventory. Monitor Payments ? Monitor your payments made through purchased orders and payments by customers with sales invoice. Manage Due Checks? Monitor checks you issued to supplier and checks paid by customers. Product Inventory ? Monitor your current ending inventory and beginning inventory.Check restock level for new orders. Account Payables and Receivables ? Check your current balance and ongoing receivables. Helps you see if your business is growing or loosing. Products History Tracking ? Monitor history of all products. Transferred, received, sold and void items are tallied. A simple deduction and addition will tell you if something is missing from the inventory. Activity Logs ? Check activities made by users. Helps in tracing employees activities especially for those whom you suspect that cheats you.